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English authors suggest that high gut microbiome diversity and high fibre intake are all correlated with lower term weight gain in humans independently of calorie intake. The researchers analysed the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline BMI).
Dietary fibre intake was investigated as a possible modifier. Less than half of the variation in long-term weight change was found to be heritable. Gut microbiota diversity was negatively associated with long-term weight gain, while it was positively correlated with fibre intake. Nine bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were significantly associated with weight gain. OTUs associated with lower long term weight gain included those assigned to Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae.
A recently published study evaluated the taxonomy and metabolic of the neonatal microbiota, considering the type of delivery, and microbiota at oral, nasal, vaginal, intestinal and cutaneous sites of the mother and the baby.
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