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English authors suggest that high gut microbiome diversity and high fibre intake are all correlated with lower term weight gain in humans independently of calorie intake. The researchers analysed the association between gut microbiome measured cross-sectionally and longitudinal weight gain (adjusted for caloric intake and baseline BMI).
Dietary fibre intake was investigated as a possible modifier. Less than half of the variation in long-term weight change was found to be heritable. Gut microbiota diversity was negatively associated with long-term weight gain, while it was positively correlated with fibre intake. Nine bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were significantly associated with weight gain. OTUs associated with lower long term weight gain included those assigned to Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae.
The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors. However, there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome.
In Experimental study, with aim was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome.
During the study, the animals were given access to 1 of 3 different carbohydrate solutions: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar).
Energy intake, weight change, and adiposity index were analyzed in relation to sugar consumption and the microbiota. Sugar consumption altered the gut microbiome independently of anthropometric measures and caloric intake.
At the genus level, Prevotella and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis were reduced, whereas Bacteroides, Alistipes, Lactobacillus, Clostridium sensu stricto, Bifidobacteriaceae and Parasutterella were elevated by sugar consumption.
Ref: Noble EE, Hsu TM, Jones RB, Fodor AA, Goran MI, Kanoski SE. Early-Life Sugar Consumption Affects the Rat Microbiome Independently of Obesity. J Nutr. 2017;147(1):20-28.